Conference article

What Do We Really Know? A Meta-Analysis of Studies Into Public Responses to Wind Energy

Ian D. Bishop
University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

José Renato de O. Lima
CEMPEQC - Organic Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University, Brazil

Fabricia Gasparini
CEMPEQC - Organic Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University, Brazil

Nadia de L. Camargo
CEMPEQC - Organic Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University, Brazil

Yussra A. Ghani
CEMPEQC - Organic Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University, Brazil

Rondenelly B. da Silva
Chemistry Department, Piauí Federal University, Brazil

José Eduardo de Olivieira
CEMPEQC - Organic Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University, Brazil

Victor A. Mazur
Academy of Refrigeration, Odessa, Ukraine

Dmytro Nikitin
Academy of Refrigeration, Odessa, Ukraine

K. Nagy
Special Advisor, Triones Institute of Technology, Budapest, Hungary

K. Körmendi
Phd student, Zrínyi Miklós National Defense University, Budapest, Hungary

Gerrit Boschloo
Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Anders Hagfeldt
Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Håkan Rensmo
Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Lars Kloo
Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

Licheng Sun
Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

Henrik Pettersson
Swerea IVF, Mölndal, Sweden

A. K. Singh
Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Patna, India

S. K. Parida
Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Patna, India

J. F. Song
The New and Renewable Energy of Beijing Key Laboratory, North China Electric Power University, China

Y. P. Yang
The New and Renewable Energy of Beijing Key Laboratory, North China Electric Power University, China

H. J. Hou
The New and Renewable Energy of Beijing Key Laboratory, North China Electric Power University, China

M. X. Zhang
The New and Renewable Energy of Beijing Key Laboratory, North China Electric Power University, China

Honghee Park
Graduate School of Division of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

Wonuk Kim
Graduate School of Division of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

Joo Seoung Lee
Graduate School of Division of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

Yongchan Kim
School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

Jonathan D. Leaver
Unitec NZ, Auckland, New Zealand

Luke HT. Leaver
Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre, Tokyo, Japan

Makato Tamura
Ibaraki University, Mito-city, Japan

Shinichiro Okushima
University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-science-city, Japan

Hoy-Yen Chan
Department of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

Saffa Riffat
Department of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

Jie Zhu
Department of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

Reza Ahmadian
Hydro-environmental Research Centre, Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, UK

Roger Falconer
Hydro-environmental Research Centre, Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, UK

Bettina Bockelmann-Evans
Hydro-environmental Research Centre, Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, UK

Eric P. Johnson
Atlantic Consulting, Gattikon, Switzerland

Download articlehttp://dx.doi.org/10.3384/ecp110574161

Published in: World Renewable Energy Congress - Sweden; 8-13 May; 2011; Linköping; Sweden

Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 57:15, s. 4161-4168

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Published: 2011-11-03

ISBN: 978-91-7393-070-3

ISSN: 1650-3686 (print), 1650-3740 (online)

Abstract

There have now been many studies about the public response to wind energy infrastructure. This includes at least 31 papers already published in 2010. There remains however a large gap between the knowledge required for effective planning and the agreed understanding of visual and other impact levels; and the influence of planning and communication processes There is only limited agreement on some basic impact variables: numbers of turbines; amelioration with distance; role of design and so forth. There is no consensus on what methods should be used to assess acceptability or to design for acceptable outcomes. This means that; in many countries; there is no societal consensus about the acceptability of wide spread deployment of wind energy systems. This paper reviews recent studies in environmental; especially visual; impact and other aspects of the process that shape public response. These deal with issues and measures including both local and regional impacts; willingness-to-pay; validity of visual simulations and the use of virtual environments in design. The response of any individual and; cumulatively; of the community is a combination of affective and cognitive factors. Both are complex in character. Affective response involves primarily aesthetic appreciation but may be influenced by deep-seated philosophical attitudes to renewable energy in the context of global environmental issues. Cognitive responses overlay with the affective response in relation to global issues but also draw heavily on local factors of noise concerns; tourism effects and health issues. Cognitive responses are also dependent on personal circumstance and experiences and perceptions of the reasonableness of the planning process. These different aspects may be applied independently to infrastructure design; planning and evaluation but are often combined inappropriately in multi-factorial studies. A diversity of approaches in the literature are analyzed for their capacity to contribute to effective discrimination of the factors behind public responses to wind farm developments; to agreement on the key elements affecting local responses; and preferred approaches to planning and design. A combination of such meta-analysis and computational innovation in mapping and visualisation may provide the opportunity for integration of these advances in knowledge such that a systematic; objective; comprehensive and acceptable approach to wind energy infrastructure planning and design is feasible and achievable.

Keywords

Wind energy; Visual impact; Affective response; Cognitive response

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