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Title
Charge-Transfer States and Upper Limit of the Open-Circuit Voltage in Polymer: Fullerene Organic Solar Cells
Article in journal
Authors
Koen Vandewal, Kristofer Tvingstedt, Jean V Manca, Olle Inganäs
Publication Year
2010
Source
IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, 2010, (16)6, 1676-1684
Link to Source (DOI)
10.1109/JSTQE.2010.2043061
Abstract
<p>The power conversion efficiency of polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells depends on the generated photocurrent and photovoltage. Here we show, using the thermodynamic theory of detailed balance, that the photovoltage in particular is limited by the presence of polymer: fullerene material interaction, resulting in the formation of a weak donor-acceptor charge transfer complex (CTC). Excited CTCs, or charge transfer (CT) states, are visible in highly sensitive measurements of the absorption and photovoltaic action spectrum, or in photoluminescence and electroluminescence measurements. It is shown that photovoltaic and electroluminescent actions of the polymer: fullerene CTC are related by a reciprocity relation. This relation reproduces the measured open-circuit voltage (V-oc) of the photovoltaic device under solar conditions. Also, the temperature and illumination intensity dependence of V-oc is reproduced by the theory. Assuming perfect conditions for charge generation and recombination, a maximum obtainable V-oc value in function of polymer: fullerene CTC properties is derived.</p>