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Title
Energy Level Alignment of N-Doping Fullerenes and Fullerene Derivatives Using Air-Stable Dopant
Article in journal
Authors
Qinye Bao, Xianjie Liu, Slawomir Braun, Yanqing Li, Jianxin Tang, Chungang Duan, Mats Fahlman
Publication Year
2017
Source
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2017, (9)40, 35476-35482
Link to Source (DOI)
10.1021/acsami.7b11768
Abstract
<p>Doping has been proved to be one of the powerful technologies to achieve significant improvement in the performance of organic electronic devices. Herein, we systematically map out the interface properties of solution-processed air-stable n-type (4(1,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)phenyl) doping fullerenes and fullerene derivatives and establish a universal energy level alignment scheme for this class of n-doped system. At low doping levels at which the charge-transfer doping induces mainly bound charges, the energy level alignment of the n-doping organic semiconductor can be described by combining integer charger transfer-induced shifts with a so-called double-dipole step. At high doping levels, significant densities of free charges are generated and the charge flows between the organic film and the conducting electrodes equilibrating the Fermi level in a classic "depletion layer" scheme. Moreover, we demonstrate that the model holds for both n- and p-doping of pi-backbone molecules and polymers. With the results, we provide wide guidance for identifying the application of the current organic n-type doping technology in organic electronics.</p>