International Journal of Ageing and Later Life 2010 5(1): 45–75

Paid work between age 60 and 70 years in Europe: a matter of socio-economic status?
By Kathrin Komp, Theo van Tilburg & Marjolein Broese van Groenou

DOI: 10.3384/ijal.1652-8670.105145


Arber, S., Davidson, K. & Ginn, J. (eds.), (2003). Gender and Ageing. Changing Roles and Relationships. Maidenhead & Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.

Atkinson, A. B., Rainwater, L. & Smeeding, T. M. (1995). Income Distribution in OECD Countries: Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study. Paris: OECD.

Atkinson, T. (2009). A stress test for the welfare state. In A. Hemerijck, B. Knapen & E. Van Doorne (eds.), Aftershocks. Economic Crisis and Institutional Choice (pp. 207–211). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Beehr, T. A., Glazer, S., Nielson, N. L. & Farmer, S. J. (2000). Work and nonwork predictors of employees’ retirement ages. Journal of Vocational Behaviour 57(2): 206–225. [Read this article]

Börsch-Supan, A. & Jürges, H. (2005). The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Methodology. Mannheim: Mannheim Research Institute for the Economics of Aging.

Brauns, H., Scherer, S. & Steinmann, S. (2003). The CASMIN educational classification in international comparative research. In J. H. P. Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik & C. Wolf (eds.), Advances in Cross-National Comparison. A European Working Book (pp. 221–244). New York: Kluwer.

Butrica, B. A., Smith, K. E. & Toder, E. J. (2009). What the 2008 Stock Market Crash means for Retirement Security. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, The Retirement Policy Program. (Discussion Paper 09–03).

Carstensen, L. L. (1995). Evidence for a life-span theory of socioemotional selectivity. Current Directions in Psychological Science 4: 151–156. [Read this article]

Casey, B. (2009). Redundancy and early retirement: The interaction of public and private policy in Britain, Germany and the USA. British Journal of Industrial Relations 30(3): 425–443. [Read this article]

Choi, N. G. (2001). Relationship between life satisfaction and postretirement employment among older women. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development 52(1): 45–70. [Read this article]

Crystal, S. & Shea, D. (1990). Cumulative advantage, cumulative disadvantage, and inequality among elderly people. The Gerontologist 30(4): 437–443.

Cumming, E. & Henry, W. E. (1961). Growing Old: The Process of Disengagement. New York: Basic Books.

De Vroom, B. & Bannink, D. (2008). Changing life courses and new social risks: The case of old age pensions. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis 10(1): 75–92. [Read this article]

Ebbinghaus, B. (2006). Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Read this article]

Esping-Andersen, G. (1996). Welfare States in Transition. London: Sage.

Esping-Andersen, G., Gallie, D., Hemerijck, A. & Myles, J. (2002). Why We Need a New Welfare State. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Read this article]

European Commission (2007). Social Protection in the Member States of the European Union, of the European Economic Area and in Switzerland, Situation on 1 January 2007. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

Eurostat (2009). Activity Rates by Sex, Age Groups and Nationality (%). Available on employment_unemployment_lfs/data/database (Accessed: March 15, 2010).

Fitoussi, J.-P. (2009). The problem of social deflation. In A. Hemerijck, B. Knapen & E. Van Doorne (eds.), Aftershocks. Economic Crisis and Institutional Choice (pp. 74–81). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Frederiksen, A. & Westergaard-Nielsen, N. (2007). Where did they go? Modelling transitions out of jobs. Labour Economics 14(5): 811–828. [Read this article]

Galobardes, B., Shaw, M., Lawlor, D. A., Lynch, J.W. & Smith, G. D. (2006). Indicators of socioeconomic position (part 2). Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60: 95–101. [Read this article]

Gannon, B., Plasman, R., Rycx, F. & Tojerow, I. (2007). Inter-industry wage differentials and the gender wage gap: Evidence from European countries. The Economic and Social Review 38(1): 135–155.

Ganzeboom, H. & Treiman, D. (2003). Three internationally standardized measures for comparative research on occupational status. In J. H. P. Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik & C. Wolf (eds.), Advances in Cross-national Comparison. A European Working Book for Demographic and Socio-economic Variables (pp. 159–194). New York: Kluwer.

Gauthier, A. H. & Smeeding, T. M. (2003). Time use of older adults: Crossnational differences. Research on Aging 25: 247–274. [Read this article]

Goldthorpe, I. & Hope, K. (1974). Social Grading of Occupation: A New Approach and Scale. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gould, R. (2006). Choice or chance – late retirement in Finland. Social Policy and Society 5(4): 519–531. [Read this article]

Gouldner, A. W. (2001). The future of intellectuals and the rise of the new class. In D. B. Grusky (ed.), Social Stratification. Class, Race and Gender in Sociological Perspective (pp. 817–830). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Hakim, C. (2004). Key Issues in Women’s Work: Female Diversity and the Polarisation of Women’s Employment. London: Glasshouse Press.

Hardy, M. A. (1991). Employment after retirement: Who gets back in? Research on Aging 13(3): 267–288. [Read this article]

Hartlapp, M. & Kemmerling, A. (2008). When a solution becomes the problem: the causes of policy reversal on early exit from the labour force. Journal of European Social Policy 18(4): 366–379. [Read this article]

Hawley Mcwhirter, E. (1997). Perceived barriers to education and career: Ethnic and gender differences. Journal of Vocational behaviour 50: 124–140. [Read this article]

Hayward, M. D., Hardy, M. A. & Liu, M.-C. (1994). Work after retirement: The experiences of older men in the United States. Social Science Research 23(1): 82–107. [Read this article]

Hemerijck, A., Knapen, B. & Van Doorne, E. (eds.), (2009). Aftershocks. Economic Crisis and Institutional Choice. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Hershey, D. A., Henkens, K. & Van Dalen, H. P. (2007). Mapping the minds of retirement planners: A cross-cultural perspective. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 38(3): 361–382. [Read this article]

Hox, J. (2002). Multilevel analysis: Techniques and Applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Huijts, T., Monden, C. W. S. & Kraaykamp, G. (2010). Education, educational heterogamy, and self-assessed health in Europe: A multilevel study of spousal effects in 29 European countries. European Sociological Review 26(3): 261–276. [Read this article]

Hult, C. (2008). Gender, culture and non-financial employment commitment in Great Britain and Sweden. European Societies 10(1): 73–96. [Read this article]

International Labour Organization (2007). Economically Active Population in 2007, by Age Group. Available on (Accessed: September 16, 2009).

Katz, S. (1983). Assessing self-maintenance: Activities of daily living, mobility, and instrumental activities of daily living. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 31: 721–727.

Kim, J. (2009). Early retirement and the three types of welfare states. Research on Aging 31(5): 520–548. [Read this article]

Kohli, M. (2007). The institutionalisation of the life course: Looking back to look ahead. Research in Human Development 4: 253–271.

Komp, K., Van Tilburg, T. & Broese van Groenou, M. (2009). The influence of the welfare state on the number of young old persons. Ageing and Society 29(4): 609–624. [Read this article]

Korpi, W. & Palme, J. (1998). The paradox of redistribution and strategies of equality: Welfare state institutions, inequality, and poverty in the Western countries. American Sociological Review 63(5): 661–687. [Read this article]

Kubicek, B., Korunka, C., Hoonakker, P. & Raymo, J.M. (2010). Marital and family characteristics as predictors of early retirement in married men and women. Research on Ageing 32(4): 467–498. [Read this article]

Kunze, A. (2008). Gender wage gap studies: Consistency and decomposition. Empirical Economics 35(1): 63–76. [Read this article]

Lewis, J., Campbell, M. & Huerta, C. (2008a). Patterns of paid and unpaid work in Western Europe: Gender, commodification, preferences and the implications of policy. Journal of European Social Policy 18(1): 21–37. [Read this article]

Lewis, J., Knijn, T., Martin, C. & Ostner, I. (2008b). Patterns of development in work/family reconciliation policies for parents in France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK in the 2000s. Social Politics 15(3): 261–286.

Lusardi, A. & Mitchell, O. S. (2007). Financial literacy and retirement preparedness: Evidence and implications for financial education. Business Economics 42(1): 35–44. [Read this article]

Magnusson, C. (2009). Gender, occupational prestige, and wages: A test of devaluation theory. European Sociological Review 25(1): 87–101. [Read this article]

McDaniel, S. A. (2003). Toward disentangling policy implications of economic and demographic changes in Canada’s aging population. Canadian Public Policy – Analyse de Politiques 29(4): 491–510.

Moen, P., Huang, Q., Plassmann, V. & Dentinger, E. (2006). Deciding the future. Do dual-earner couples plan together for retirement? American Behavioural Scientist 49(10): 1422–1443. [Read this article]

Myles, J. (2002). A new social contract for the elderly? In G. Esping-Andersen, D. Gallie, A. Hemerijk & J. Myles (eds.), Why We need a New Welfare State (pp. 130–172). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Read this article]

Oehler, A. & Werner, C. (2008). Saving for retirement – a case for financial education in Germany and the UK? An economic perspective. Journal of Consumer Policy 31: 253–283. [Read this article]

O’Rand, A. & Henretta, J. (1999). Age and Inequality: Diverse Pathways through Later Life. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2006). Ageing and Employment Policies: Live Longer, Work Longer. Paris: OECD.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2008). Complementary and Private Pensions throughout the World. Paris: OECD.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2009). Pensions at a Glance 2009: Retirement-income Systems in OECD Countries. Paris: OECD.

Pierson, C. (2006). Beyond the Welfare State? The New Political Economy of Welfare. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Rose, D. & Harrison, E. (2007). The European socio-economic classification:A new social class schema for comparative European research. European Societies 9(3): 459–490. [Read this article]

Schils, T. (2008). Early retirement in Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom: A longitudinal analysis of individual factors and institutional regimes. European Sociological Review 24(3): 315–329. [Read this article]

Shaw, M., Bruna Galobardes, D. A., Lawlor, J. L., Wheeler, B. & Smith, G. D. (2007). The Handbook of Inequality and Socioeconomic Position. Concepts and Measures. Bristol: Policy Press.

Sorensen, A. (1994). Women, family and class. Annual Review of Sociology 20(1): 27–47. [Read this article]

Szinovacz, M. E. & Davey, A. (2005). Predictors of perceptions of involuntary retirement. The Gerontologist 45(1): 36–47.

Taylor, S. & Earnshaw, J. (1995). The provision of occupational pensions in the 1990s. An exploration of employer objectives. Employee Relations 17(2): 38–53. [Read this article]

Taylor-Gooby, P. (2008). The new welfare state settlement in Europe. European Society 10(1): 3–24. [Read this article]

Treiman, D. (1977). Occupational prestige in comparative perspective. New York: Academic Press.

Van Dalen, H.P., Henkens, K. & Schippers, J. (2009). Dealing with older workers in Europe: A comparative survey of employers’ attitudes and actions. Journal of European Social Policy 19(1): 47–60. [Read this article]

Van der Meer, M. (2006). Productivity among older people in The Netherlands: Variations by gender and the socio-spatial context in 2002–03. Ageing and Society 26(6): 901–923. [Read this article]

Van Solinge, H. & Henkens, K. (2005). Couples’ adjustment to retirement: A multi-actor panel study. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 60B(1): S11–S20.

Van Solinge, H. & Henkens, K. (2007). Involuntary retirement: The role of restrictive circumstances, timing, and social embeddedness. Journal of Gerontology Social Sciences 62B(5): S295–S303.

Walker, A. (2006). Active ageing in employment: Its meaning and potential. Asia-Pacific Review 13(1): 78–93. [Read this article]