However; the dream of a national museum was interrupted during the Interwar period. Indeed; the Museo Nazionale delle Arti e Tradizioni Popolari was only installed in the 1950s thanks to the arrangement of the collection of objects gathered by Loria four decades earlier and the desire to put on display the multiple facets of Italian national identity and its regional and local specificities. This interest in the regional differences was maintained in the 1970s; when there was an unexpected social phenomenon: the establishment of local ethnographic museums created by local associations of volunteers helped by academic anthropologists and; in recent years; also by Italian law.
In the last 50 years some anthropologists like Alberto Mario Cirese and Pietro Clemente; have developed theories related to the exhibition of ethnographic objects and have provided an anthropologic analysis of this phenomenon; which was very different in the North of Italy compared to the South. The report ends with some examples of Italian ethnographical practice related to museums; which show the evolution of museographic theories in this field and the influence of new multimedia tools.