During most of the 20th century the link between statistically processed object types and ethnographic interpretations was and is a discursive construction. However; the situation between 1900 and 1950 was unique with regard to the MNA exhibitions and the ideological profile of archaeology. What flourished then was an archaeology that might be characterized as nationally romantic; culturally conservative and racial; and one might add that this changed only gradually in the wake of the Second World War. Still; and despite certain sympathizers of Nazi Germany amongst its practitioners; Swedish archaeology cannot be compared to that developed in the context of Nazi ideology. It did not advocate or actively support racial war; euthanasia or aggressive racial hygiene (Baudou 2002). Nevertheless; Swedish archaeology formed part of an international context; where cooperation and correspondence between researchers; not least German ones; were a natural part of the practice. This article provides a brief outline of the theme of national identity and archaeological representation in Sweden; mainly through an interpretation of the displays of the early 20th century in the MNA.