This paper explores Luigi Pigoriniâs role in the creation and consolidation of Museo Preistorico Etnografico; established by the Italian government in 1875. Pigorini trained as both a naturalist and an antiquarian. Since the creation of the chair of Paletnologia in Rome in 1877; he was one of the first professionals in prehistoric archaeology in Europe. Taking into account Pigoriniâs theoretical propositions; this paper aims to analyse his role in the creation of the national museum that still bears his name. In the rooms of a former Collegio Romano; Pigorini gathered a collection of prehistoric materials from different regions of Italy and ethnographic artifacts from all over the world. By displaying both the material evidence of national (pre) history and universal ethnographic materials; Pigorini created in the rooms of his museum; a national master narrative on the formation of the Italian people; measured against the evolution of mankind through stages of progress.