Extrapolating Ryle’s (1949) ontology to technology education; the author has previously asserted that
Know that )
Know relevance ) )----- ‚Äď‚Äď> Strategy knowledge
Know how )
inserting know relevance into Ryle’s two-fold distinction.
Additionally; the role of the inner eye is central to design: seeing in (Wollheim; 1987) and seeing as (Wittgenstein; 1989). The recognition of the use of extrapolation; simile; metonym and metaphor transforms Ryle’s distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge into something much more powerful for thinking about design processes. In a technological context; it represents the transformation of an initial perception of possibility into an innovative product; process or system.
This theoretical understanding grew from the author’s doctoral research into young children’s use of drawing as a tool for designing; part of which involved a 2-year longitudinal study in which the purpose of using drawing for designing was explained to a class of 6-7 year olds using the dual metaphor of drawing as both a container and a journey. This metaphor enabled them to understand the potential and purpose of using drawing to support the generation and development of design ideas. Not only were these young children able to use drawing in a much more powerful way than previously observed in children of this age; but the products and design solutions that they produced were more creative and effective.
Within education; as in the real world; the ability to transfer and apply knowledge from one area to another is highly valued. Within technological design; an effective solution frequently requires the ability to extrapolate; to use metonyms and metaphors from other realms of experience and expertise. The success of the container / journey metaphor depended on this capacity.
The transformational capability of the human mind; to see things from multiple perspectives and to take leaps of imagination stems; this author believes; from our love of story. Essentially; I told the children a good story. To apply narrative to the use of science to engineer a solution is; I believe; a uniquely human capability and empowering children to do so may be imperative for all our futures.
Keywords: Design knowledge; Design capability; Design drawing; Analogy; Metaphor
PATT 26 Conference; Technology Education in the 21st Century; Stockholm; Sweden; 26-30 June; 2012
Baynes; K.. (1994); Modelling: the language of design; Loughborough University of Technology; Department of Design & Technology.
Buchanan; R. (1995 ) Wicked problems in design thinking; in Margolin; V & Buchanan; R; (eds) The Idea of Design; Cambridge; MA.; MIT Press
Donaldson; M. (1992) Human Minds; Harmondsworth; Middlesex; Penguin Books
Egan; B.A.(1996) Purposes in drawing: The significance of children‚Äôs personal styles for design & technology; IDATER 96; Loughborough University; Department of Design and Technology
Gentner; D. (1982) Are scientific analogies metaphors? In Miall; D. Metaphor: Problems and Perspectives; Hassocks; Harvester
Hope; G. (2003a) The Process of Solving Problems: young children exploring the rules of the game in science; mathematics and technology; The Curriculum Journal
Hope; G. (2003b) Taking Ideas on a Journey : a model to support young children‚Äôs thinking processes; British Educational Research Association Conference (BERA2003)
Lakoff; G. & Johnson; M. (1980) Metaphors We Live By; Chicago; University of Chicago Press
Miall; D.S. (1982) Metaphor: Problems and Perspectives; Hassocks; Harvester
Middleton; H. (2000) Design and Technology: What is the Problem?; Conference Proceedings; Design & Technology International Millennium Conference; London
Rittel; H. & Weber; M.M. (1974) Wicked Problems; London; Hutchinson & Co.
Roberts; P. (1994) Of models; modelling & design: an applied philosophical enquiry; in Roberts; P.; Archer; B. & Baynes; K. Modelling: the language of design; Design Occasional Papers No.1; Loughborough University of Technology; Department of Design & Technology.
Ryle; G. (1949) The Concept of Mind; London; Hutchinson & Co.
Veale; T. (1999) Conceptual Blending; http:/www.compappdcu.ie/~tonyv/papers/CogSci. ps;gz
Von Glaserfeld; E. (1987) The Construction of Knowledge; Seaside; California; Intersystems Publications
Wittgenstein; L. (1969) Philosophical Investigations; the Blue Book; The Brown Book; Oxford; Basil Blackford
Wollheim; R. (1987) Painting as an Art; London; Thames and Hudson.