The present report provides an overview on the history of national museums in Spain as well as an analysis of a selected set of case studies. In the first part of this report; a historical outline of the creation and evolution of museums is provided from the point of view of the enlarging scope of the concept ‚Äėnational heritage‚Äô. The choice of national museums in the second part exemplifies the role played by different categories of heritage in the construction of national master narrative in Spain; including fine arts (Museo del Prado); archaeology (Museo Arqueol√≥gico Nacional) and nature (Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales). The study of the Museum of the Americas (Museo de America) allows for the exploration of the complex relationship between Spanish national identity and the imperial past; whereas the Museum of History of Catalonia (Museu d‚ÄôHist√≤ria de Catalunya) leads reflection to the competing nationalist projects within the state. Finally; the case of the Museum of the Spanish Army (Museo del Ej√©rcito Espa√Īol) is considered in the light of the contemporary debates on ‚Äėhistorical memory‚Äô that have marked its recent renovation.