National museums such as the National Archaeological Museum (henceforth NAM); the Byzantine and Christian Museum (henceforth BCM); the Museum of Greek Folk Culture (henceforth MGFA) and the National Historical Museum are entrenched in this scheme; support the master narrative and present the notion of an eternal Hellenic spirit that guides the nation through different historical periods. Thus; Greek national museums perpetuate national myths and make official collective memory visible. As large proportions of collective memory is supposedly embodied in emblematic objects of national significance; the public is expecting national museums to act as treasure-houses of national memory; and this is indeed one of the main reasons instructing museum visiting. Moreover; as significant national institutions museums are normally seen as places that tell ’the truth’; whereby ’truth’ represents nationally sanctioned views of the nation’s trajectory. Ruptures; silences; difficult heritage or other voices are hard to be accepted; although significant shifts have been under way for more than a decade now.
This report maps the dynamics of establishing national museums in Greece and provides an overview of the most important national museums in the country through a discussion of selected case studies. For the purpose of this research; which was part of EuNaMus’ Mapping and Framing Institutions 1750-2010 project; a ’national museum’ is defined as an institution owned and controlled by the state; which claims and is recognised as being national and which articulates and negotiates national identity and knowledge with public exhibitions. A national public position and a focus on the national narrative are at the core of the investigation.
Building National Museums in Europe 1750-2010. Conference proceedings from EuNaMus; European National Museums: Identity Politics; the Uses of the Past and the European Citizen; Bologna 28-30 April 2011. EuNaMus Report No. 1
Aggelidi; Ch. (2003) âByzantium and historiographyâ; Archaiologia kai Technes; 88: 6-7 [in Greek].
?non. (1951) âAthens: the National Museumâs new galleryâ; Archaeology; 4/3: 134-35.
Aronsson; P. (2010) âExplaining national Museums. Exploring comparative approaches to he study of national museumsâ in P. Aronsson and S. Knell (eds) National Museums. New Studies from Around the World; London: Routledge.
Avdikos; E (2009) Introduction to the Studies of Folk Culture; Athens: Kritiki [in Greek].
Beckwith; J. (1964) âByzantine art in Athensâ; The Burlington Magazine; 106/738: 398-403.
Biliouri; K. (2009) âWhen the U.S.A. discovered Byzantium: a tale of the cultural otherâ; Museology; 5; 35-48. Online. Available at: <http://museology.ct.aegean.gr/articles/2009924152055.pdf> (accessed 3 November 2010).
Bobou-Protopapa; E. (1993) The Lyceum Club of Greek Women; Athens: Lyceum Club of Greek Women [in Greek].
Byron; R. (1931) âThe Byzantine exhibition in Parisâ; The Burlington Magazine; 59/340: 27- 29; 32-33.
Caftantzoglou; R. (2003) âFolk museums; âfolk cultureâ and the museum âaudienceâ; in C. Gougouli and ?. Hadjinikolaou (eds) special volume: Museums and Folk Culture; Ethnographic issues; 12-13: 33-46 [in Greek].
Carabott; Ph. (2003) âMonumental Visions: the past in Metaxas Weltanschauungâ; in K.S. Brown and Y. Hamilakis (eds) The Usable Past. Greek Metahistories; Oxford: Lexington Books.
Chatzidakes; M. (1964) Byzantine Art; a European Art; Exhibition catalogue; Zappeion Exhibition Hall; April 1 â June 15; Athens.
Clogg; R. (2002) A Concise History of Greece; 2nd edn; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Collignon; M. and Couve; L. (1902-1904) Catalogue des Vases Peints du MusĂ©e National d’AthĂšnes; Paris.
Dakin; D. (1972) The Unification of Greece 1770-1923; New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Demakopoulou; Ch. (1982) The Foundation of the Historical and Ethnographical Society of Greece; Athens [in Greek].
Demakopoulou; K. (1999) âSuccesses and problemsâ; ?? Vima; 14 August [in Greek].
ââ (2001) âProblems and perspectives of contemporary museology. Experience from the National Archaeological Museumâ; in ?. Scaltsa (ed.) Museology at the threshold of the 21st century; Thessaloniki: endefktirio publications [in Greek].
Demaras; K. (1986) Konstantinos Paparreghopoulos. His Life; his Work; Athens: MIET [in Greek].
Dontas; G. (1987) âChristos Karouzos and the National Archaeological Museumâ; Nea Estia; 1444: 1116-118 [in Greek].
?ugenidou; ?. (1993) âArchaeology todayâ; Archaiologia kai Technes; 46: 6-7 [in Greek]. Fallmerayer; J. P. 1830; Geschichte der Halbinsel Morea wĂ€hrend des Mittelalters; I; Stuttgart; Fallmerayer; J. P. 1836; Geschichte der Halbinsel Morea wĂ€hrend des Mittelalters; II; Stuttgart.
Frangoudaki; A. (2001) Language and the Nation 1880-1980. A hundred years of struggle for the authentic Greek language; Athens: Alexandria [in Greek].
Galanopoulou; M. (2010) Communication practices for the foreign visitor in Greek museums. A comparative study of ten Athenian museums; unpublished M.A. thesis; Athens; Panteion University; Department of Communication; Media and Culture.
Gazi; A. (1993) Archaeological Museums in Greece 1829-1909. The Display of Archaeology; unpublished PhD Thesis; University of Leicester.
ââ (1994) âArchaeological Museums and Displays in Greece 1829-1909. A first approachâ; Museological Review 1/1: 50-69.
ââ (1999a) âFrom the Muses to the Museum. The history of an institution through the centuriesâ; Archaiologia kai Technes; 70: 39-46 [in Greek].
ââ (1999b) âThe display of antiquities in Greece 1829-1909. Ideological prerequisites â Practical approachesâ; Archaiologia kai Technes; 73: 45-53 [in Greek].
ââ (2008) âArtfully classifiedâ and âappropriately placedâ. Notes on the display of antiquities in early nineteenth-century Greeceâ; in D. Damaskos and D. Plantzos (eds) A Singular Antiquity. Archaeology and Hellenic Identity in twentieth-century Greece; Athens: Mouseio Benaki.
ââ (forthcoming) âSacred fragments decently displayed. Displaying archaeology â Exhibiting ideology in nineteenthand early twentieth century Greek museumsâ; in S.Voutsaki and P. Cartledge; (eds) Ancient Monuments & Modern Identities: towards a critical history of Greek archaeology; London: Ashgate.
Gatou; I. (2009a) âEvaluation of the exhibition âMan and ToolsâŠâ; Museum of Greek Folk Artâ; Tetradia Mouseiologias; 6: 59-63 [in Greek].
ââ (2009b) Exhibitions Evaluation. The case of the exhibition âMan and Tools. Aspects of labour in pre-industrial societyâ; Museum of Greek Folk Art; unpublished M.A. thesis; Athens; Department of Communication; Media and Culture; Panteion University; [in Greek].
Gefou-Madianou; D. (2009) âAnthropology in the shadow of Greek civilisation: the development of a science in academiaâ; in D. Gefou-Madianou (ed.) Aspects of Anthropological Research. Culture; history; representations; Athens; Ellinika Grammata. Gotsis; St. and Konstantios; N. (2007) âVisitorsâ comments on the new BCMâ; ILISSIA; 1: 118-20.
Gratziou; O. (1986) âFrom the history of the Byzantine Museum: the first yearsâ; Mnimon; 11: 54-73 [in Greek].
Hadjinikolaou; ?. (2003) âIntroductionâ; in C. Gougouli and ?. Hadjinikolaou (eds) special volume: Museums and Folk Culture; Ethnographic issues; 12-13: 11-26 [in Greek].
Hadjinikolaou; ?. (2011) âHistorical evidence and personal experience. The challenge of social history museumsâ; Tetradia Mouseiologias; 7: 43-48 [in Greek].
Hamilakis; Y. (1992-1998) âThoughts on the teaching of archaeology in Greek universitiesâ; HOROC; 10-12: 585-604 [in Greek].
ââ (1993) â?he teaching of archaeology in Greek universitiesâ; Archaiologia kai Technes; 46: 47-50 [in Greek].
ââ (2007) The Nation and its Ruins. Antiquity; Archaeology and National Imagination in Greece; Oxford: Oxford University Press.
ââ (2009) âIndigenous Hellenisms/indigenous modernities: Classical antiquity; materiality; and modern Greek societyâ in G. Boys-Stones; B. Graziosi and Ph. Vasunia (eds); The Oxford Handbook of Hellenic Studies; Oxford: OUP.
Hamilakis; Y. and Yalouri; E. (1996) âAntiquities as symbolic capital in modern Greek societyâ; Antiquity; 70: 118-29.
Hyxley; G. (1998) âAspects of modern Greek historiography of Byzantiumâ; in D. Ricks and P. Magdalino (eds) ?yzantium and the Modern Greek Identity; Aldershot; Hampshire: Ashgate.
ILISSIA (2008) Special issue: Museum Studies in Greece; 2 (Fall); 4-37 [in Greek].
Kaltsas; N. (2007) âThe National Archaeological Museum and its Collections. The chronicle of its foundation and developmentâ in N. Kaltsas; The National Archaeological Museum; Athens; John S. Latsis Public Benefit Foundation; 15-23; Online. Available at: <http://www.latsisfoundation. Org/megazine/publish/ebook.php?book=32&preloader=1> (accessed 2 September 2010).
Karouzos; Ch. (2000) Ancient Art; 2nd ed; Athens: Hermes [in Greek].
Karouzos; Ch. And Karouzou; S. (1981) An Anthology of Treasures from the National Museum; Athens: MIET [in Greek].
Karouzou; S. (1946) âHow the antiquities of the National Archaeological Museum were safeguardedâ; Nea Estia; 465: 1158-163 [in Greek].
ââ (1956) âThe new hall of the national museumâ; Nea Estia; 695: 849-55 [in Greek].
ââ (1957) âThe most ancient Greek civilizations. Three new halls at the National Museumâ; Nea Estia; 723: 1203-205 [in Greek].
ââ (1984a) âExperiences and memoriesâ; HOROC; 2: 1-61 [in Greek].
ââ (1984b) âThe National Museum since 1941â; in Proceedings of the 1st Conference; Association of Greek Archaeologists; (Athens; 30.3 - 3.4.1967); Athens: Association of Greek Archaeologists [in Greek].
Katimertzi; P. (1982) âOur museums are for âŠ the museum!â; I Avgi; 7 February [in Greek].
Katsaridou; I. and Biliouri; K. (2007) âRepresenting Byzantium: the narratives of the Byzantine past in Greek national museumsâ; in P. Aronsson and M. HillstrĂ¶m (eds) NaMu; Making National Museums; Setting the Frames; NorrkĂ¶ping; Sweden 26-27 February; Online. Available at: <http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/022/016/ecp0702216.pdf> (accessed 3 November 2010).
Kavvadias; P. (1890-92) Sculptures of the National Museum. Descriptive Catalogue; Athens: S. Vlastos [in Greek].
Kioussopoulou; ?. (2003) âThe study of Byzantium in modern Greeceâ; Archaiologia kai technes; 88: 19-21.
Kitromilides; P. (1998) âOn the intellectual content of Greek nationalism: Paparrigopoulos; Byzantium and the Great Ideaâ; in D. Ricks and P. Magdalino; ?yzantium and the Modern Greek identity; Aldershot; Hampshire: Ashgate.
Kitromilides; P. and Sklavenitis; Tr. (2004) Historiography of Modern and Contemporary Greece 1833-2002); Athens: National Research Institute [in Greek].
Kokkinidou; D. and Nikolaidou; M. (2000) âA sexist present; a human-less past: museum archaeology in Greeceâ; in M. Donald and L. Hurcombe (eds) Gender and Material Culture in Archaeological Perspective; Palgrave MacMillan Press.
Kokkou; A. (2009) Care for the Antiquities in Greece and the first Museums; 2nd edn; Athens; Capon [in Greek].
Konstantios; D. (1999) âByzantiumâs Arc. History; aims and perspectives of the Byzantine and Christian Museumâ; I Kathimerini; Epta Imeres; 10-11 April [in Greek].
ââ (2004) âByzantine and Christian Museum. Metamorphosesâ; in Thorakion. A volume in memory of P. Lazarides; Athens; Ministry of Culture [in Greek].
ââ (2007a) âOur museological propositionâ; in Byzantine and Christian Museum. Byzantine Collections. The permanent exhibition; Athens: BCM and Ministry of Culture [in Greek].
ââ (2007b) âByzantine Museum: another policy is feasibleâ; ILISSIA; 1: 4-13 [in Greek].
ââ (2009) Byzantine Museum. The Past; the Present; the Future; Athens; BCM [in Greek]. Koliopoulos; I. and Veremis; Th. (2002) Greece. The Modern Sequel: from 1831 to the present; New York: New York University Press.
ââ (2010) Modern Greece: a history since 1821; Oxford; Wiley-Blackwell.
Kotsakis; K. (1991) âThe powerful past: theoretical trends in Greek archaeologyâ; in I. Hodder (ed.) Archaeological Theory in EuropĂ©. The last 3 decades; London: Routledge.
ââ (2007) âByzantium and the Avant-Garde. Excavations at Corinth; 1920s -1930sâ; Hesperia; 76: 391-442.
Kourkoutidou-Nikolaidou; ?. And Tourta; ?. (2002) âPermanent Exhibitionâ; I Kathimerini; Epta Imeres; 5 May [in Greek].
Kremmydas; V. (2010) The Great Idea. Metamorphoses of a national ideological construction; Athens; Typothito [in Greek].
Kunze; E. (1968) âChristos Karouzosâ; Jarbuch den Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften; 1- 11.
Kyriakidou-Nestoros; A. (1993) Folklore studies; Athens: Poreia [in Greek].
Lada-Minotou; M. 1995; âBrief history of the foundation of the first ethnological museum in Greece and its contribution to preserving artifacts from our traditional cultureâ; in The Role of Ethnographical Museums within a United EuropĂ© (Athens; 1-5 Oct. 1992); Proceedings; Athens; Greek Society of Ethnographical Museology.
Lappas; ?. (1982) The 100 years of the Historical and Ethnographical Society and its Museum 1882-1982; Athens: Historical and Ethnographical Society.
Leondaritis; G. (1983) âHellenism and Internationalism: political ideologyâ; in D. Tsaoussis (ed.) Hellenism and Greekness. Ideological and Experiential Axes of Greek Society; Athens: Hestia [in Greek].
Leontis; A. (1995) Topographies of Hellenism: Mapping the Homeland; Ithaca; NY: Cornell University Press.
Liakos; A. (2004) âModern Greek historiography (1974-2000). The era of transition from Dictatorship to Democracyâ; in U. Brunbauer (ed.) (Re)Writing History. Historiography in Southeast EuropĂ© after Socialism; Munster: LIT Verlag.
Liakos; A. (2008) âHellenism and the making of modern Greece: time; language; spaceâ; in K. Zacharia (ed.) Hellenisms. Culture; Identity; and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity; Aldershot: Ashgate.
Loukatos; D. (1992) Introduction to Greek Folklore; 4rth ed; Athens: MIET [in Greek].
Louvi-Kizi; A. (2002) âHours of Byzantium in the city of Mystrasâ; I Kathimerini; 26 May [in Greek].
Mackridge; P. (2008) âCultural difference as national identity in modern Greeceâ; in K.
Zacharia (ed.) Hellenisms. Culture; Identity; and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity; Aldershot; Ashgate.
ââ (2010) Language and National Identity in Greece; 1766-1976; Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mazarakis_Ainian; I. (1994) âThe museumâs historyâ; Special Issue: The National Historical Museum; I Kathimerini; Epta Imeres; 15 May [in Greek].
Megas; G. (1974) âInauguration of the Museum of Greek Folk Artâ; Laografia ?T: 379-81 [in Greek].
MGFA (2007) âPopi Zora.âFor me it was my lifeâ; video produced in honour of Popi Zora by the Museum of Greek Folk Culture [in Greek].
Morris; I. (1994) Classical Greece: Ancient Histories and Modern Archaeologies; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mouliou; M. (1996) âAncient Greece; its classical heritage and the modern Greeks: aspects of nationalism in museum exhibitionsâ; in J. Atkinson; et al. (eds) Nationalism and Archaeology; Scottish Archaeological Forum.
ââ (1998) âThe protection of archaeological heritage in Greeceâ; in M. Phelan; G. Edson and K. P. Mayfield (eds) The Law of Cultural Property and Natural Heritage: protection; transfer and access; Evanston; Ill.; Kalos Kapp Press.
ââ (2008) âMuseum representations of the classical past in post-war Greece: a critical analysisâ; in D. Damaskos and D. Plantzos (eds) A Singular Antiquity. Archaeology and Hellenic Identity in twentieth-century Greece; Athens: Mouseio Benaki.
ââ (2009) âThe concept of diachronia in the Greek archaeological museum: reflections on current challengesâ; in J. Bintliff and H. StĂ¶ger (eds) Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. The Corfu Papers; BAR International Series 2023; Oxford: Archaeopress.
Nikiforidou; A. (2009) âMan and Tools. An interpretative approach to the new exhibition of the Museum of Greek Folk Artâ; in Man and Tools. Aspects of labor in the preindustrial world; Exhibition catalogue; Athens: Ministry of Culture & Museum of Greek Folk Art.
Nikolaidou; M. and Kokkinidou; D. (1998) âGreek women in archaeology. An untold storyâ; in M. Diaz-Andreu and M.L. Stig SĂžrensen (eds) Excavating Women. A History of Women in European Archaeology; London: Routledge.
Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou; M. (1994) âByzantine historical studies in Greece. From S. Zambelios to D. Zakythinosâ; Vyzantina Symmeikta; 9?: 153-76 [in Greek].
Pantzou; N. (2011) âBearers of traumatic historical memory: the Museum of the Ai Stratis Political Exiled in Athensâ; Tetradia Mouseiologias; 7: 49-55 [in Greek].
Papadopoulos; S. (2002) âHours of Byzantiumâ; the great turnâ; I Kathimerini; 27 January [in Greek].
ââ (2004) âIn pursuit of time lostâ; I Kathimerini; 15 August [in Greek].
Papazoglou-Manioudaki; L. (2010) âMetamorphoses through time. The redisplay of the Prehistoric collection of the National Archaeological Museumâ; Archaeologia kai Technes; 114; 106-11 [in Greek].
Pearce; S. (1992) Museums; Objects and Collections: A Cultural Study; Leicester: Leicester University Press.
Petrakos; V. (1987) The Archaeological Society at Athens 1837-1987; Athens: Archaeological Society at Athens [in Greek].
ââ (2007) The 170 years of the Archaeological Society at Athens; Athens: Archaeological Society at Athens [in Greek].
ââ (1995) The Adventure of Greek Archaeology in the Life of Christos Karouzos; Athens: Archaeological Society at Athens [in Greek].
Philadelfeus; A. (1935) The Museums of Athens; Athens.
Philippidis; D. (1999) Greek Design and Decoration: three centuries of architectural style; New York: Harry N Abrams.
Plantzos; D. (2008) âArchaeology and Hellenic identity; 1896-2004: the frustrated visionâ; in D. Damaskos and D. Plantzos (eds) A Singular Antiquity. Archaeology and Hellenic Identity in twentieth-century Greece; Athens: Mouseio Benaki.
Polites; A. (1993) Romantic Years. Ideologies and Mentalities in Greece 1830-1880; Athens: Mnimon [in Greek].
Proskynitopoulou; R. (2010) National Archaeological Museum. The redisplay of the Bronzes Collectionâ; Archaeologia kai Technes; 116: 85-92 [in Greek].
Rizospastis (2003) âNational Archaeological Museum. A dispute among architects about the interventionsâ; Rizospastis; 12 September [in Greek].
Romaiou-Karastamati; E. (1995) âThe Museum of Greek Folk Art and its role in the organization of Greek folk museumsâ; in The Role of Ethnographical Museums within a United EuropĂ© (Athens; 1-5 Oct. 1992); Proceedings; Athens: Greek Society of Ethnographical Museology.
ââ (2009) âForwardâ; in Man and Tools. Aspects of labor in the pre-industrial world; Exhibition catalogue; Athens; Ministry of Culture & Museum of Greek Folk Art.
Romiopoulou; ?. (1995) The new wing of Roman sculpture in the NAM; Archaiologia kai Technes; 56: 107-108 [in Greek].
ââ (1997) âThe contribution of Semni Karouzou in the redisplay of the sculptures collections of the national archaeological museumâ; in Memory of Semni Karouzou; Athens: National Archaeological Museum and ICOM-Greece [in Greek].
Sakellariou; ?. (1987) âChristos Karouzos and the prehistoric collection of the National Museumâ; Nea Estia; 122: 1444; 1136-38 [in Greek].
Seferis; G. (1986) Days; V; January 1945 - April 1951; Athens: Ikaros [in Greek].
Soteriou; G. (1924) A Guide to the Byzantine Museum in Athens; Athens [in Greek].
ââ (1931a) âThe Byzantine Museumâ; Nea Estia; 108: 649-51 [in Greek].
ââ (1931b) A Guide to the Byzantine Museum in Athens; Athens [in Greek].
Stathis; P. (2007) âHistorical culture and constructed memory. The secret schoolsâ; in Myths and Ideological Construction in Contemporary Greece; Athens: Society of Studies of Neo-Hellenic Culture and General Education.
Stavridi-Patrikiou; R. (1999) Language; Education and Politics; Athens; Olkos [in Greek].
ââ (2000) Demoticism and the Social Problem; 2nd edn; Athens: Hestia [in Greek].
ââ (2010) The Fears of a Century; Athens: Metaichmio [in Greek].
Theocharis; D. (1984) âSpecial collections or museums of special orientationâ; in Proceedings; First Congress (Athens 30/3/1976 - 3/4/1967); Athens; Association of Greek Archaeologists [in Greek].
?ouloupa; ?. (1997) âThe antiquities during the Occupationâ; I Kathimerini; Epta Imeres; 18 ?ay [in Greek].
Toundassaki; I. (2003) âAnthropology and Folklore: from mutual indifference to the conditional acceptance of reciprocal benefitsâ; dokimes; 11-12: 7-63 [in Greek].
Toundassaki; I. and Caftantzoglou; R. (2005) âNarrations de lâidentitĂ© culturelle grecque. Les trois musĂ©es nationaux dâAthĂšnesâ; Ethnologie FranĂ§aise XXXVII: 229-42.
Toundassaki; I.; Caftantzoglou; R. and Frydakis; M. (2005) âHistory; structure and operation of the three national museums in Athensâ; Tetradia Mouseiologias; 2: 71-73 [in Greek].
Tourna; ?. (2010) âNational Archaeological Museum. The redisplay of the Egyptian collectionâ; Archaeologia kai Technes; 115: 90-94 [in Greek].
Triantafyllou; M. (2011) âGypsies at the Byzantine Museum. An exhibition on Greek Romaâ; I epochi online; 6 June. Online. Available at: http://www.epohi.gr/portal/politismos/9657- %CE%A4%CE%A3%CE%99%CE%93%CE%93%CE%91%CE%9D%CE%9F%CE% 99-%CE%A3%CE%A4%CE%9F- %CE%92%CE%A5%CE%96%CE%91%CE%9D%CE%A4%CE%99%CE%9D%CE% 9F-%CE%9C%CE%9F%CE%A5%CE%A3%CE%95%CE%99%CE%9F
Tziovas; D. (1989) Metamorphoses of Nationism and the Ideological Construction of Greekness in the inter-war period; Athens: Odysseas [in Greek].
ââ (2007) âGreekness and the thirties generationâ; cogito; 6: 6-9 [in Greek].
ââ (2008) âReconfiguring the past: antiquity and Greeknessâ; in D. Damaskos and D. Plantzos (eds) A Singular Antiquity. Archaeology and Hellenic Identity in twentieth-century Greece; Athens: Mouseio Benaki.
Vatopoulos; N. (2003) âArchaeological Museum with no visionâ; I Kathimerini; 21 September [in Greek].
Vatopoulos; N. (2004) âA vision that was not fulfilledâ; I Kathimerini; 21 March [in Greek].
Veloudis; G. (1982) Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer and the Genesis of Greek Historicism; Athens: EMNE-MNIMON.
Vemi; B. and Nakou; I. (eds) (2010) Museums and Education; Athens: nissos [in Greek].
Vlahoyanni; E. (2010) âNational Archaeological Museum. The sculptures collectionâ; Archaeologia kai Technes; 115: 83-89 [in Greek].
Vitti; M. (2000) The Thirties Generation. Ideology and form; 5th edn; Athens: Hermes [in Greek].
Voudouri; D. (2003) The State and Museums. The institutional frame for the operation of archaeological museums; Athens: Sakoulas [in Greek].
ââ (2010) âLaw and the politics of the past: legal protection of cultural heritage in Greeceâ; International Journal of Cultural Property; 17: 547-68.
Voutsaki; S. (2003) âArchaeology and the Construction of the Past in Nineteenth Century Greeceâ; in H. Hokwerda (ed.) Constructions of Greek Past. Identity and Historical Consciousness from Antiquity to the Present; Groningen; Egbert Forsten.
Weitzamnn; K. (1947) âByzantine art and scholarship in Americaâ; American Journal of Archaeology; 51/4; 394-418.
Xydakis; ?. 2004; âMr. Venizelosâ âNationalâ crimeâ; I Kathimerini; 21 March [in Greek].
Yanoulopoulos; Y. (1999) âOur noble blindnessâ Foreign policy and ânational issuesâ from the 1879 defeat to the Asia Minor catastrophe; Athens: Vivliorama [in Greek].
Zakythinos; D. A. (1962) âLa synthĂšse Byzantine dans lâ antithĂšse Orient-Occidentâ; Actes du Colloque International des Civilisations Balkaniques; Sinaia.
Zervoudaki; H. (1997) âSemni Karouzosâ exhibition of vasesâ; in Memory of Semni Karouzou; Athens: National Archaeological Museum and ICOM-Greece [in Greek].