National museum institutions in Bohemia were formed in two distinct areas: art and sciences. Although the Picture Gallery of the Society of Patriotic Friends and the Patriotic Museum; established in 1796 and 1818 respectively; were the creations of enlightened aristocrats as elitist institutions to improve local taste and civilization; they became crucial in shaping Czech nationalism since the 1830s. As a consequence; historical and archaeological collections began to be built. As Czech society increasingly started to participate in the modernization and industrialization process of late nineteenth century Austria; applied and decorative arts emerged as the unique marks of a distinctively modern Czech national identity. Two museums originally devoted to industrial production illustrate this development; the N√°prstek Museum of Asian; African and American Cultures and the Museum of Decorative Arts. Historical identity inseparable of the idea of building a Czechoslovak nation after 1918; began to emerge at the V√≠tkov Hill monument; which was revitalized after 1989 as a major site of historical exhibitions.