Methodology/approach: The abstract definition â€śfailureâ€ť is extended. Building on that a combined application of the methods â€ś3Pâ€ť (Production Preparation Process) and â€śFailure Mode and Effect Analysisâ€ť (FMEA) is developed and verified. Besides; an approach to measure the benefits of combining the 3P and FMEA method is given.
Findings: The results imply that 3P and FMEA are complementary approaches and once they are combined; their capabilities to avoid failures are enhanced. The capability and maturity level of the organisation determines the success of using this method.
Originality/value: This paper redefines the abstract definition â€śfailureâ€ť. It shows that a great optimisation potential is available in the product development process and how it could made useful.
Keywords: Automotive industry; product development process; Kaizen; 3P; FMEA