One of the most significant consequence of this situation is the difficult individuation of all the university stakeholders and the definition of their roles in the QMS. Possible university stakeholders are listed below:
- industries and economical subjects
- professional orders
Therefore; QMSs relating to teaching or research are strictly connected with professors involvement in those processes.
But when the focus is on administrative supporting processes the role of professors radically changes: they become the most important and demanding stakeholders; as they are the main users of the service provided. A considerable number of central administration offices (or decentred ones) dedicate to professors support the greater part of their activities.
The â€śGood Practiceâ€ť project; promoted and guided by Milan Polytechnic School since 2000; demonstrated that we canâ€™t even forget that the professorsâ€™ roles change from an university to another: for example there are activities that are completely managed by professors in some university; but that elsewhere are under other structures control. Moreover; sometimes professors decide and execute an activity; while somewhere else they only take a decision; leaving the execution to clerks. Undoubtedly; every university trying to implement QMS has to carefully consider this aspect in order to establish which is the exact role of professors in their organization and to correctly define all the responsibilities. In this case good practices individuation and analysis can help to point out critical elements; while solutions from similar situation can be learned. The investigation described below is just an example of this approach.
10th QMOD Conference. Quality Management and Organiqatinal Development. Our Dreams of Excellence; 18-20 June; 2007 in Helsingborg; Sweden
 Catalano G. - La valutazione delle attivitĂ amministrative delle universitĂ : il Progetto â€śGood Practice" - Edizioni Il Mulino; Quaderni del Comitato nazionale per la valutazione del sistema universitario pp. 196 (2002)
 Catalano G. - Valutare le attivitĂ amministrative delle universitĂ . Aspetti metodologici e buone pratiche - Edizioni Il Mulino; Quaderni del Comitato nazionale per la valutazione del sistema universitario pp. 296 (2004)
 Lagrosen S.; Seyyed-Hashemi R.; Leitner M.; - Examination of the dimensions of quality in higher education - Quality Assurance in Education Volume 12 Number 2 pp. 61-69 (2004)
 Lomas L. - Embedding quality: the challenges for higher education - Quality Assurance in Education Volume 12 Number 4 pp. 157-165 (2004)
 Srikanthan G.; Dalrymple J.; - A synthesis of a quality management model for education in universities - International Journal of Educational Management; Volume 18 Number 4 pp. 266- 279 (2004 )
 A. E. Osseo-Asare; Longbottom D.; W. D. Murphy - Leadership best practices for sustaining quality in UK higher education from the perspective of the EFQM Excellence Model - Quality Assurance in Education; Vol. 13 No. 2 pp. 148-171; 2005
 Sirvanci M. B. - Critical issues for TQM implementation in higher education - The TQM Magazine; Volume 16 Number 6 pp. 382-386; 2004
 â€śGood Practice Projectâ€ť; http://www.cnvsu.it/indagini/programmi_ricerca/view.asp?ID_PDR=8
 â€śCampusOne CRUI Projectâ€ť; http://www.campusone.it/?Arg=128
â€śEuropean Union Bologna Processâ€ť; http://www.eua.be/eua/en/policy_bologna.jspx