This paper considers many of the rational activities that control decision-making to involve decisions requiring a choice between altruism and egoism as well as those involving issues of social justice. There are four distinct ambiguities that are faced in these decisions. Our argument is that many policy decisions deal with the first two ambiguities; but do not deal with ambiguities than pertain to leadership and inequality. These cause a tension between values. Aquinas categorized the tension between values as being social and egalitarian (Aquinas; 1955/1929). Likewise; twenty-first century executives are faced with the dilemma of reconciling Christian values with policy decisions of an economic rationalistic nature.
Keywords: Altruism; ambiguities of justice; economic rationalism; policymaking; theology; value systems