Cross border migration can easily result in exclusion when it produces an âundesiredâ immigrant population. Many scholars exploring this problem in Sweden argue that it is racism. I use the analytical framework for analysing racism by Anthony Marx to shed some light on this argument. This is important because Sweden has a reputation as a champion of equality and it is only recently that claims about racism have surfaced in the country. Anthony Marx views racism as a dynamic process that develops from a combination of institutional/structural forces and the actions of agents. He also considers racism to be historically embedded and tied to developments of the modern nation state. I use his framework to analyze social relations between ânative Swedesâ and immigrants from Africa. I argue that the discourse of the nation state and the significance of boundary marking have created a sense of belonging in Sweden which portrays immigrants from many non-European countries as the Other. In addition; these immigrants appear to be the exclusive targets of institutionalised practices of exclusion. However; their actions have not yielded a uniform racial identity from below and as such inhibits the consolidation of the process.