Article | GigaHertz 2003. Proceedings from the Seventh Symposium | Microwave power dependent properties of ferroelectric varactors

Title:
Microwave power dependent properties of ferroelectric varactors
Author:
Pär Rundqvist: Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden Andrei Vorobiev: Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden Spartak Gevorgian: Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden \ Microwave and High Speed Electronics Research Center, Ericsson AB, Sweden
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Year:
2003
Conference:
GigaHertz 2003. Proceedings from the Seventh Symposium
Issue:
008
Article no.:
068
No. of pages:
4
Publication type:
Poster
Published:
2003-11-06
Series:
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings
ISSN (print):
1650-3686
ISSN (online):
1650-3740
Publisher:
Linköping University Electronic Press; Linköpings universitet


Ferroelectrics; especially in paraelectric phase; are widely considered for microwave applications. The main feature; that’s makes them attractive for tuneable microwave applications; is the DC field non-linear dependent dielectric permittivity. A large number of tuneable microwave devices and systems have been demonstrated in the past; In general; the microwave power dependence of film parameters is an undesirable effect; however when properly designed; ferroelectric components may be used in harmonic generators and mixers. In this work we report preliminary results of nonlinearity measurements of parallel-plate ferroelectric varactors integrated on Si wafers.

The first reports on experimental investigation of nonlinearities in BaxSr1-xTiO3 based ceramics date back to 1950s and early 1960s. DiDomenico et al report the first successful demonstration of a 3rd harmonic generator in 1962. Recently 2nd harmonic generation was demonstrated [4]; by applying DC bias. Samoilova et al. reported frequency conversion (harmonic generation) experiment in a Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) with a ferroelectric film. Where as Booth et al [6] uses a CPW with Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3 film; the non-linear capacitance C by using two approaches: i) third harmonic generation; and ii) C(VDC) measurements at microwave frequencies. It was shown that the non-linear capacitance C determined from C(VDC) measurements is in excellent agreement with the one found from third harmonic generation experiment; this leads to the conclusion that ferroelectric devices might be tuned with nanosecond speeds.

To study nonlinearities Kozyrev et al designed a resonator loaded by a ferroelectric capacitor; using both a single signal as well as intermediation distortion; which confirmed previous results. Kozyrev et al also gives a simple theory for estimation of overheating of the ferroelectrics films at high power levels; and it was shown that the power handling capability of a ferroelectric tuneable filter may be as high as 3.5 W. Experiments and more detailed analysis of the microwave heating on nonlinearities are given elsewhere.

In this work; we used simple; on-chip microprobe reflection measurements to determine microwave power dependence of the capacitance of parallel-plate ferroelectric varactors. It is shown that the nonlinear parameters estimated from this experiment are in good agreement with the nonlinear parameters found from C(VDC) measurements at low frequencies. Hence; nonlinear parameters found from simple C(VDC) measurements may be used in the development of microwave devices; such as harmonic generators and mixers.

GigaHertz 2003. Proceedings from the Seventh Symposium

Author:
Pär Rundqvist, Andrei Vorobiev, Spartak Gevorgian
Title:
Microwave power dependent properties of ferroelectric varactors
References:

1. Gevorgian; S.S.; Kollberg; E.L.; “Do we really need ferroelectrics in paraelectric phase only in electrically controlled microwave devices?” Microwave Theory and Techniques; IEEE Transactions on; Volume: 49 Issue: 11; Nov. 2001 Page(s): 2117 -2124


2. A. Kozyrev; A. Ivanov; T. Samoilova; O. Soldatenko; K. Astafev; and L. Sengupta; ”Nonlinear response and power handling capability of ferroelectric BaxSr1-xTiO3 film capacitors and tuneable microwave devices”; J. Appl. Phys.; Vol. 88; pp.5334-5342; 2000


3. M. DiDomenico; Jr.; D. A. Johnson; and R. H. Pantel; “Ferroelectric Harmonic Generator and Large-Signal Microwave Characteristics of Ferroelectric Ceramics”; J. Appl. Phys.; Vol.33; pp.1697-1706


4. A. T. Findikoglu; Q. X. Jia; D. W. Rigor; and X. D. Wu; “Tuneable microwave mixing in nonlinear dielectric thin film of SrTiO3 and Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3“ Electron. Letters; Vol. 31; pp.1814-1815; 1995.


5. T. B. Samoilva; and K. F Astaf’ev; T. Rivkin; and D. S. Ginley; “Frequency conversion in coplanar waveguide based on BaxSr1-xTiO3 film”; J. Appl. Phys; Vol. 90; pp. 5703-5707; 2001


6. J. C. Booth; R. H. Ono; I. Takeuchi; and K. S. Chang; “Microwave frequency tuning and harmonic generation in ferroelectric thin film transmission lines”; Appl. Phys Lett.; Vol. 84; pp. 718-720; 2002.


7. T. B. Samoilva; and K. F Astaf’ev; “Effect of Heat on the Nonlinearity of Plane Strontium Titanate Film Capacitor on Sapphire in a Microwave Field”; Technical Physics; Vol. 45; No 6; pp.759-765; 2000.


8. P. Rundqvist; A. Vorobiev; S. Gevorgian “Non-destructive microwave characterisation of Ferroelectric films on conductive substrates” submitted to integrated ferroelectrics.


9. A. K. Tagantsev; V. O. Sherman; K. F. Astafiev; J. Venkatesh and N. Setter; to be published in Journal of Electroceramics.

GigaHertz 2003. Proceedings from the Seventh Symposium

Author:
Pär Rundqvist, Andrei Vorobiev, Spartak Gevorgian
Title:
Microwave power dependent properties of ferroelectric varactors
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