To examine this double question; it is important to define what are subject matters at primary school in order to show the differences between academic subjects and subjects designed and organised for pupils (5-12 years old). An historical point of view is also important to understand when and how technological education was born; how this new subject had been integrated in primary school curriculum; and to discern ruptures and continuities in the traditional ideas about teaching for young pupils. Then "technology" dont appear as an alone subject but included in an area which bad been called with different names in compulsory school. In the new curriculum (1994) this area is for age groups 3-5 "to discover the world"; for age groups 5-8 "discovering the world" and for age groups 8-11 "sciences and technology". This organisation have it out with a gradual differentiation of subject matters for pupils. However; the technological point of view has to be identified by teachers because they must be able to discern when they are teaching technology; physics or biology during activities that they proposed at school.
The question about vocational training for primary school teachers is the question about capacities; knowledge’s and skills to be able to teach this area. But in the institutes for training teachers; the most of students or young teachers (about 90%) are coming rather from human sciences; psychology or literary. Then it is essential to examine this question with a vocational point of view. What is a primary school teacher ? He is neither a technology teacher; nor a physics teacher; nor a biology teacher; nor an history teacherâ€¦ He is a specialist of educating and teaching for children 3-11 years old. Generally; at the question about training to teach area of science and technology; there are two answers. The first one is that the training has to give the whole of knowledge’s in electricity; mechanics; astronomy; electronics; physicsâ€¦ But with this idea it is impossible to design training because it needs a very long time. The other answer is that the training has to be a reconciliation between students and science and technology because often they dont like that and they have a bad memory of the time when they had studied science at school. This answer is also insufficient
PATT 1996. Proceedings from the conference "Pupils Attitude Towards Technology"
Andries; B. & Beigbeder; I. coord. (1994) Culture scientifique ettechnique des professeurs des Ă©coles; Paris; CNDP-Hachette; 188 p. (A book which raise the question about the primary schools teachers training in science and technology: ten presentations).
Lebeaume; J. (1996). Ecole; technique et travail manuel. Nice; Zâ€™Editions (The history of manual work for primary school in France 1880â€“1990) LEBEAUME; J. coord (1996). Actes des journĂ©es dâ€™Ă©tudes sur laformation initiale des professeurs des Ă©ocles en sciences et technologie.Paris; INRP. (Proceedings from the seminar about primary schools teachers training in science and technology).
Lebeaume; J & Martinand; J-L. (1996) â€ťEtude dâ€™Ă©preuves de physique-technologie au concours de recrutement du professorat des Ă©coles en France â€“ Que devraient savoir les candidatsâ€ť. Didaskalia.Bruxelles; De Boeck; Paris; INRP; 7; 9â€“26. (A study about the test-paper of physics-technology at the competitive examination).
Martinand J-L. (1994). Les sciences Ă lâ€™Ă©cole primaire: questions et repĂ¨res. In B. AndriĂ¨s & I. Beigbeder (dir); La culture scientifique et technique des professeurs des Ă©coles. Paris; CNDP-Hachette; pp. 44â€“54.
Martinand J-L. (1994). â€ťObserver â€“ Agir â€“ Critiquer â€“ Lâ€™enseignement des sciences expĂ©rimentales Ă lâ€™Ă©cole Ă©lĂ©mentaireâ€ť Actes des JournĂ©esLangevin . Brest; 7p(A presentation of a new model for the primary schools teachers training).
Martinand J-L. coord. (1995). DĂ©couverte de la matiĂ¨re et de la technique. Paris; Hachette. (A book for the training).
Martinand J-L. (1994). â€ťThe purposes and methods of technological education on the threshold of the twenty-first centuryâ€ť; Prospects; vol. XXV; no. 1; 49â€“56.