In Sweden, for educational purposes, there is some flexibility for distributing copyrighted material to registered participants in a course. In Sweden, Bonus Copyright Access is an umbrella organization that acts as an intermediate between educational institutions and copyright holders. Together they set up an agreement which gives teachers and students the permission to copy and distribute copyright protected material with some restrictions.
Using Copyright Protected Material in Lectures
From the first of January 2014 a new legal agreement have between Bonus Copyright Access and SUHF (Sveriges universitets- och högskoleförbund, [The Association of Swedish Higher Education]) was signed. The new agreement increases teacher's and student's possibilities to copy and share copyright protected material from Swedish and foreign publications, for example books, educational materials, daily and weekly magazines, journals, digital publications, etc.
Copy and Share digital websites and analog from paper copies
Teachers and students may copy by:
- Photo copying
Distribute and Share for Teaching
Teachers and students are allowed to share for educational purposes within a university by:
- Saving digitally on a university's restricted network, a USB memory.
- Share copies restricted the network, by e-mail.
- Use copied material in presentations for example Power Point
- Save and share digital presentations on a university's restricted network, via e-mail.
- Project and show on screen
- Deliver paper copies to registered students
A teacher may, if nothing else is stated, copy up to 15% of the total number of pages from a work (a book for example), but not more than 15 pages. If the book has 100 pages it is allowed to copy 15 pages. If the original book has 60 pages, one is allowed to copy 9 pages (15% of the total number of pages). If the publication is a book chapter it is allowed to copy 15% of the total number of pages. It is also legal to copy further 3 pages if that is necessary to make the chapter complete. The teacher may make as many copies so that each student gets one copy each and the teacher some copies. The 15/15 rule is also includes e-books.
The 15% rule is also applicable for journals i.e. 15% of the total number of pages. If the journal has 50 pages one is allowed to copy 8 pages (7½ pages is considered as 8 pages). If a separate article, included in a journal of 30 pages, the complete article can be copied (4,5 pages plus 3 extra pages).
Photocopying of a complete book for education purposes even if the book is out of print, is not allowed without a permission from the copyright holder.
What May the Teacher Copy for Own Use
The teacher may, only for their own use, copy a complete work, e.g. a book. The material may not be spread to other readers.
It is allowed to copy and share
- Mandatory course literature may only be copied if a smaller section shall be read. The 15/15-rule is applicable.
- Separate sections from mandatory course literature may be copied and displayed i classroom when teaching.
- Separate sections from mandatory course literature distributed by publisher may be copied if it will be part of an examination.
It is NOT allowed to copy and share
- Mandatory course literature published by a publishing house, but allowed if it in the publication is included occasional work and only if a minor section not exceeding 15 pages (15/15 rule); allowed to copy separate sections for presentations via Power Point and allowed to copy separate exam paper,
- make print out of digitally stored work where the university has a special agreement with the copyright holder which regulates the above mentioned copying,
- if it is explicitly stated a ban against copying of the copyright holder's work at any of the parties and
- recorded music, film, video, radio and TV program without permission from the copyright holder.
Note also that the discussion here applies to "normal" university lectures and any for-pay scenarios (e.g. workshops for colleagues, nonregistered students) are not covered; for the latter one must get permission from the copyright holder.
Libraries can scan copyright protected material and share it between libraries but not send the file, with the material directly to a student or a researcher at the university or another universities unless the library has an agreement with the copyright holder. Only paper copies can be distributed to students. If the borrower is a student at the university, for example LiU, and the article will be used for teaching, the librarian can scan the article and send it to the student by e-mail.
A teacher is obliged to state the source and the copyright holder's/photographer's names on the produced copies.
Links to Bonus Copyright Access with rules for Colleges and Universities (Swedish Only)